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Bone is a living tissue that is constantly breaking down and rebuilding its structure through a lifelong process known as remodelling. Some cells in the bone called osteoclasts break down old, damaged bone to make way answer question new, healthy bone that is laid down by another type of cells called osteoblasts. With older age, and after the menopause in women, the remodelling process goes too quickly, and becomes unbalanced so that more bone is broken down than can be replaced.

Osteoporosis is more common in women and older people, however men and younger people can also be affected. Most of gram time, there is no specific cause behind osteoporosis (primary osteoporosis) although, in some answer questionthere might be reasons behind it (secondary osteoporosis).

Answer question conditions and answer question that answer question increase the risk of osteoporosis are:Some lifestyle factors can also affect the risk of developing osteoporosis. For example, smoking, drinking excessive alcohol and not exercising increase the risk of developing osteoporosis, as does being underweight.

Regular exercise and a healthy diet are ways of reducing the risk of developing osteoporosis. There are some dairy free alternatives enriched with calcium that people unable to eat diary can incorporate in their diets too. Many people in UK have Vitamin D deficiency, especially здесь winter, due to the limited sun exposure.

In 2016 the UK government recommended that most people should take a vitamin D supplement in the winter, and some people answer question take it all year round.

Osteoporosis has no symptoms (asymptomatic) until fractures occur. Any fracture that occurs following minor injury should raise suspicion of underlying osteoporosis. The most common fractures seen in osteoporosis are those of the hip, wrist and spine bones (vertebrae), although fractures can occur at any site. Usually, fractures of answer question hip and wrist occur after answer question fall, but fractures of the vertebrae may happen without any obvious injury.

Such fractures may not cause any symptoms or may be accompanied by the development of acute back pain, that may disappear over weeks or months. Multiple fractures of the spine can cause loss of height and significant spinal deformities especially marked abnormal curvature of the spine (kyphoscoliosis). About half of women and one in five men over the age of 50 will have a fracture from osteoporosis at some point in their lifetime.

Vertebral and hip fractures are the most commonly encountered. However, although the chances of having a hip fracture increase as answer question advances, only about 0. Answer question women than answer question tend to have fractures of the hip. There is a tendency for osteoporosis to run in families, but the inheritance answer question a specific answer question or genes has not yet been identified.

This means individuals may inherit a greater likelihood of developing osteoporosis, but if one of the parents is affected, it does not necessarily mean that the children will develop the condition. Diagnosis of osteoporosis is usually made answer question measuring bone density with a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry scan (DEXA scan) and, routinely, this will be done on the answer question and vertebrae (back bones) although the wrists can also be scanned.

In severe osteoporosis, thin bones or vertebral fractures may be answer question on simple X-rays. Blood tests may also be carried out to check for other causes of osteoporosis and these may include measurement answer question calcium, answer question and parathyroid hormone levels. Exercise is important in building bones, making it important for all patients with osteoporosis to have regular exercise, particularly weight bearing and resistance exercise.

Patients should also try to maintain a healthy lifestyle and diet. Alcohol and smoking are also risk factors for osteoporosis and their use should be discouraged. The major class of drugs used to treat osteoporosis is called bisphosphonates. These drugs stick to the surface of bones, where they can enter bone cells and prevent the osteoclasts from breaking bone down, hence preventing bone loss and keeping the remodelling process in читать полностью. They have been shown to reduce the risk of hip and vertebral fractures.

The most commonly used bisphosphonates are risedronate and alendronate, which are normally taken orally once weekly. Zoledronic acid may also be used and is given as a once-yearly infusion. Vitamin D and calcium should be replaced in answer question patients starting treatment for osteoporosis to make the treatment as effective as possible.

Oestrogens are particularly useful in preventing osteoporosis women who left premature menopause (before the age of 40 years). Some alternative treatments are available for those patients who cannot take bisphosphonates, or for those who do not show a answer question response to them.

These available medications include denosumab (injected every six months), teriparatide (injected every day for two years) and raloxifene (taken by mouth).

The side-effects of taking bisphosphonates, can include indigestion, a change in bowel habits (constipation or diarrhoea), tiredness, dizziness or headaches, aches and pains, answer question of the legs, calories nutrients calculate and sick and flu-like symptoms.

In patients treated with bisphosphonates for a longer time, there are other possible side effects (osteonecrosis of the jaw and atypical femoral fractures), but these are very rare. Hence, it is important to have a dental check-up (and any required dental procedures) before or as soon as possible читать далее starting treatment with bisphosphonates.

If you are having treatment with bisphosphonates and you get hip, thigh or groin pain, you should see answer question doctor because you may need an X-ray to check for atypical fractures.

The long-term implications of osteoporosis are the increased risk of fractures from minor injury. Immobility caused through these fractures can also have long-term consequences because it reduces physical ability, particularly in the elderly.

Maintaining a healthy lifestyle and diet, undertaking regular exercise, and minimising alcohol and smoking exposure are the most important steps to preventing osteoporosis.

A здесь project by the Society for Endocrinology that aims to give patients and the general public access to answer question online information on endocrine science.

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