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The weekly data on depression severity were 92. Other clinical and demographic variables were not related to missing data. The mean dose by study group and week is presented in the online Table DS2. The self-reported adherence was high (98. Testosterone Topical Solution (Axiron)- Multum average plasma levels at the eighth treatment week were nortriptyline 100.

The weekly measurements of depressive symptoms on the three original scales Testosterone Topical Solution (Axiron)- Multum the three symptom dimensions are presented in Fig.

However, there were significant effects of drug on outcome on each of the three symptom dimensions. The observed mood and cognitive symptoms improved more in escitalopram-treated participants. The neurovegetative symptoms improved more in those receiving nortriptyline (Table 2). Symptom dimensions are represented as T-scores with a mean of 50 and standard deviation of 10 at baseline. Error bars represent 1 standard error of the по этому сообщению. Table 2 Between-drug differences in the final mixed-effect models a a.

Whole sample analysis includes both medications in participants who switched. Randomised sample Testosterone Topical Solution (Axiron)- Multum only includes data from the first antidepressant course, when participants were treated by the randomly allocated medication To control for selection bias, we performed a sensitivity analysis restricted to the first course of antidepressant treatment in the randomised participants.

The results were very similar with all effect size estimates нажмите чтобы увидеть больше one standard error of the whole sample estimates (Table 2).

The degree of statistical certainty was reduced owing to the smaller sample size. Younger age was associated with improvement on all measures (e.

History of taking antidepressants predicted Testosterone Topical Solution (Axiron)- Multum improvement продолжить all measures (e. Information on response and remission using last observation carried forward analysis is available in the online data supplement.

Two participants died during the study period. A woman randomised to nortriptyline died by suicide in the ninth week. A man randomly allocated to escitalopram died of a road traffic accident in the fifth week. Severe adverse events included two hospital admissions owing to suicide risk (ninth week on random escitalopram, third week on random nortriptyline), a manic episode in the third Testosterone Topical Solution (Axiron)- Multum of nortriptyline and an unintentional overdose of nortriptyline with full recovery.

The present results demonstrate the utility of dimensional symptom measures derived by psychometric analysis to identify relative advantages of individual antidepressants. Escitalopram was more effective than nortriptyline in relieving mood and cognitive symptoms of depression.

Nortriptyline was more effective than escitalopram in improving neurovegetative symptoms such as disturbed sleep and poor appetite. None of these differences would have been revealed by summed scores on conventional depression rating scales that combine all three types of symptoms. The observed mood dimension reflects the symptoms of depressed http://rubyart.xyz/tsunami/vyxeos-daunorubicin-and-cytarabine-for-injection-multum.php, anxiety, psychomotor retardation and activity.

Reference Serretti, Mandelli, Lorenzi, Pirovano, Olgiati and Colombo33 The observed mood dimension contains information from most items that constitute the previously suggested core sub-scales of the HRSD, Reference Faries, Herrera, Rayamajhi, DeBrota, Demitrac and Potter31,Reference Bech, Gram, Dein, Quixin Solution 0.5%)- Multum, Vitger and Bolwig34 but has the advantages of using information from a larger number of items and not making indefensible assumptions about additivity and equal contribution of items.

Reference Uher, Farmer, Maier, Rietschel, Hauser and Marusic10,Reference Embretson and Reise35 Therefore, the observed mood score is suitable for testing hypotheses related to pharmacological modulation of affect Testosterone Topical Solution (Axiron)- Multum biomarkers of the monoaminergic systems. The strong effect of escitalopram on observed mood indicates the utility of this antidepressant in people where core affective symptoms dominate the clinical picture. The cognitive symptoms dimension comprises items reflecting dissatisfaction with oneself, pessimism, guilt and suicidal thoughts.

It shows a modest advantage of escitalopram over nortriptyline. As suicidal ideation appears to lie on a continuum with cognitive symptoms, Reference Uher, Farmer, Maier, Rietschel, Hauser and Marusic10 the cognitive dimension may be evaluated as a monitoring tool for treatment-emergent suicidality.

Reference Perlis, Purcell, Fava, Fagerness, Rush and Trivedi36 The most robust finding of the present study was that neurovegetative symptoms improved significantly more with nortriptyline than with escitalopram. The neurovegetative symptom dimension includes disturbed sleep, decreased appetite, weight loss and lack of sexual interest. These symptoms are characteristic of melancholic depression and may indicate the need for antidepressants with a broader spectrum of pharmacological effects.

Reference Moller38 Sleep improvement may be independent of antidepressant action on mood Reference Katz, Koslow and Frazer7 and moderated by genes regulating the circadian rhythm. Reference Serretti, Cusin, Benedetti, Mandelli, Pirovano and Zanardi39 The present findings add to the weight of evidence indicating that sleep and appetite should be measured separately from the core mood symptoms.

Reference Bagby, Ryder, Schuller and Marshall8 As the item response theory scoring is independent of the number of administered items, Reference Embretson and Reise35 it could be used to derive equivalent scores for samples where either HRSD or MADRS is available.

Reference Uher, Farmer, Maier, Rietschel, Hauser and Marusic10 This raises the possibility of re-examining existing data-sets to attempt to replicate the present findings and extend them to placebo-controlled trials.

The size of the drug differences is comparatively small. Reference Khan, Kolts, Testosterone Topical Solution (Axiron)- Multum, Krishnan and Brown40,Reference Walsh, Seidman, Sysko and Gould41 Increased efficacy of the item response theory-scored dimensions may also have substantial implications for the sample size and power of future comparisons between active drugs or Testosterone Topical Solution (Axiron)- Multum drugs and placebo.

Reference Leon, Marzuk and Portera42 Moreover, small overall differences can point to large differences in subgroups of patients. A relatively small improvement in accuracy of symptom Testosterone Topical Solution (Axiron)- Multum can magnify the power to detect interactions between drug and individual characteristics, Testosterone Topical Solution (Axiron)- Multum facilitate identification of predictors of differential drug response.

Reference Brookes, Whitely, Egger, Smith, Mulheran and Peters43 Dimensional symptom scores will allow testing of specific pharmacogenetic hypotheses concerning mood, Reference Serretti, Mandelli, Lorenzi, Pirovano, Olgiati Testosterone Topical Solution (Axiron)- Multum Colombo33 neurovegetative Reference Serretti, Cusin, Benedetti, Mandelli, Pirovano and Zanardi39 or cognitive symptoms.

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Comments:

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11.08.2020 in 04:45 Конкордия:
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