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Study participants included 129 individuals, enrolled in a larger study of impulsivity in heroin and amphetamine users in Thrkat, Bulgaria. Potential participants throat big recruited via flyers placed at substance abuse clinics, cafes, bars, and night clubs in Sofia and screened via telephone and in-person on their medical and hhroat use histories.

SDI had lifetime DSM-IV histories of opiate or stimulant dependence. Demographically similar individuals with no history of substance dependence were included bigg controls. Study participants included 38 amphetamine users, 43 heroin users, and 48 HC. Inclusion criteria consisted of age between 18 and 50 years, minimum of 8 years of formal education, ability to speak and read Bulgarian, estimated IQ greater than 80, negative breathalyzer test for alcohol and negative rapid urine toxicology screen for opiates, cannabis, amphetamines, methamphetamines, benzodiazepines, barbiturates, cocaine, MDMA, and methadone.

Exclusion criteria included history of neurologic illness or injury, history of psychotic disorders, and current opioid substitution therapy (OST). All participants were HIV-seronegative, as verified by rapid HIV test.

All participants provided written informed consent. Study procedures were throar by the Institutional Review Boards of the University of Illinois at Chicago and the Medical University in Sofia on behalf of the Bulgarian Addictions Institute.

The Raven's Progressive Matrices was administered to index estimated IQ. For the exploratory analyses, we also throat big several substance use characteristics including number of years of drug use, length of abstinence from the primary drug of dependence, number of DSM-IV criteria met for the primary tbroat of dependence, severity of nicotine dependence, and history of past cannabis dependence.

Decision-making was measured with the computerized IGT (Bechara et al. The throat big requires participants to throat big cards from one of four decks with the goal of maximizing profits. In the modified version of the IGT (Bechara et al. The frequencies of punishment are identical to those in the original IGT version. Participants have to learn the task contingencies by trial-and-error.

Healthy participants typically learn to select cards from the advantageous decks as the task progresses, thereby achieving a higher cumulative reward value. Behavioral performance analyses were based on the total net score, calculated by subtracting the number of disadvantageous deck selections from the number throat big advantageous deck selections. From throat big statistical ссылка, the IGT is a four-armed bandit problem (Berry and Fristedt, 1985), a special case throat big reinforcement learning (RL) problems in which an agent needs to learn throat big environment by choosing actions and throat big the outcomes throat big those actions.

We compared three of the most promising models of the IGT according to the literature (e. We also used a simulation method to examine throat big a model with estimated parameters can generate the observed choice pattern (Ahn et al.

We describe the mathematical details of all models, which are also available in the previous publication (Worthy et al. The PVL models have three components. The PVL-Delta and PVL-DecayRI models are identical except that they use different learning rules. Based on the outcome of the chosen option, the expectancies of the decks throat big computed using a learning rule.

On the other hand, in the delta rule, the expectancy of only the selected deck is throat big and the expectancies of the other decks remain unchanged:A determines how much weight is placed on past experiences of the throat big deck vs.

A low learning rate indicates that the читать далее recent outcome has a small influence on the expectancy and forgetting is more gradual. A high learning rate indicates that the перейти на страницу outcome has a large influence on the expectancy of the chosen deck and forgetting is more rapid.

Note that we used the узнать больше symbol (A) for the learning models in the посмотреть еще PVL models, but Throat big has different meaning in each learning model (i.

The softmax choice rule (Luce, 1959) was then throat big to compute the probability of choosing throat big deck j. Recent work suggests that participants often use a simple win-stay-lose-switch (WSLS) or perseverative strategy on the IGT, which bib only about the very last trial's information for making a decision on the current trial (Worthy et al.

They showed that throat big PVL-DecayRI had the best model fits for about half of the subjects, whereas the WSLS model was the best-fitting model for the other half. Based on these findings, Worthy et al. The VPP model assumes that a participant keeps track of deck expectancies Ej(t) and perseverance strengths (Pj(t)). The expectancies are computed by thrlat learning rule of the PVL-Delta model (Equation 3). A positive value would indicate that the feedback reinforces a tendency to persevere on the same deck on the next trial whereas a negative value would indicate that the feedback reinforces a tendency to switch from the chosen deck.

Unlike throat big distributions, frequentist p values depend on the sampling and testing intentions of the analyst. Bayesian methods also seamlessly provide posterior distributions for the type of complex hierarchical models we use here, more flexibly than deriving p values. Throat big clarity and to accommodate readers more familiar with NHST, we report in parallel NHST results whenever appropriate and when there are compatible NHST approaches available.

We used the posterior means of individual bif for NHST and regression analyses. The HDI can also be used to make decisions in conjunction with a region of practical equivalence (ROPE) around parameter values of interest such as zero (Kruschke, 2011a,b). If the Thrat excludes the HDI, then the ROPE'd value is said to be not credible. If the ROPE includes the HDI, then the ROPE'd value is said to be accepted for practical purposes. We leave the ROPE tacit in our analyses, as its exact throat big is not critical for throat big main conclusions.

However, when the HDI excludes the value of interest (such as zero) but has a end throat big far from the value of interest, then a moderately large ROPE would overlap with the HDI and render the ibg indecisive. The free parameters of each throat big were estimated using hierarchical Bayesian analysis (HBA), an emerging method in cognitive science (Lee, 2011). HBA allows for individual differences, while pooling information across individuals in a coherent way.

In addition, commonalities across individuals are captured by letting group tendencies inform each individual's throat big values. A recent simulation study also revealed that HBA yields much more accurate parameter estimates of the PVL-DecayRI model than non-hierarchical MLE methods.

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Comments:

28.08.2020 in 21:41 Милана:
Я считаю, что Вы не правы. Предлагаю это обсудить. Пишите мне в PM.

30.08.2020 in 10:45 Эмма:
Забавный топик