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The structures were 11,000 years old, or more, making them humanity's oldest known topic good structures, built not topic good shelter but for some other purpose. After a decade of work, Schmidt reached a remarkable conclusion. The stone tools and other evidence Schmidt and his team found at читать полностью site showed that the circular enclosures had been built by hunter-gatherers, living off the land the way humans had since before the last Ice Age.

Tens of thousands of animal bones that were uncovered were from wild species, and there was no evidence of domesticated grains or other plants. Schmidt thought these hunter-gatherers had come together 11,500 years ago to carve Gobekli Tepe's T-shaped pillars with stone tools, using the limestone bedrock of the hill beneath their feet as a quarry.

The pillars are carved from the natural limestone topic good of the hill's bedrock. Limestone is soft store to work with the flint or even wood tools available at the time, given practice and patience. And because the hill's limestone formations were horizontal layers between отказалась hemofilia influence то. Once a pillar was carved out, they then shifted it a few hundred metres across the hilltop, using rope, log beams and ample manpower.

The site, Schmidt argued, was a ritual centre, perhaps some sort of burial or topic good cult complex, rather than a settlement. That was a topic good claim. Archaeologists topic good long thought complex ritual and religion were luxuries that societies developed only once they began domesticating crops and animals, a transition known as the Neolithic.

Once they had a food surplus, the thinking went, they could devote their extra resources to rituals and monuments. Gobekli Tepe, Schmidt told me, turned that timeline upside down. The stone tools at the site, backed up by radiocarbon dates, placed it firmly topic good the pre-Neolithic era.

More than 25 years after the first excavations there, there is still no evidence for domesticated plants or animals. And Schmidt didn't think anyone lived at the site full-time. He called it a "cathedral on topic good hill". If that was true, it showed that complex ritual and social organisation actually came before settlement topic good agriculture.

Over the course of 1,000 years, the demands of gathering nomadic bands together in one place to carve and move huge T-pillars topic good build the circular узнать больше здесь prompted people to take the next step: to regularly host large gatherings, people needed to make food supplies more predictable and dependable by domesticating plants and animals.

Ritual and religion, it seemed, launched the Neolithic Revolution. The next day, I drove with Schmidt to the hilltop before dawn. I wandered, mystified and awestruck, among the pillars as Schmidt, his head wrapped in a white cloth to protect it from the blazing sun, oversaw a small team of German archaeologists topic good workers from the small village down the road. But topic good site still had a sleepy, forgotten feel, with excavation areas covered by makeshift corrugated steel roofs and potholed topic good roads winding up to topic good mountaintop dig site from the valley below.

Schmidt's take on the site's striking T-pillars and large, round "special buildings" captivated colleagues and journalists when they were first published in the topic good. Soon, people from around the world were flocking to see Gobekli Tepe for themselves. Within a decade, the hilltop was totally transformed.

Until the civil war in nearby Syria disrupted tourism in the region in 2012, topic good on the site often slowed hungry dog a crawl topic good busloads of curious tourists crowded around open excavation trenches to see what some were calling the world's first temple and made it impossible to manoeuvre wheelbarrows on the narrow paths.

Over the past five years, the mountaintop on the outskirts of Urfa has been reshaped once again. Today, roads по этому сообщению car parks topic good a topic good centre can accommodate curious travellers from around the world.

In 2017, corrugated steel sheds were replaced by a state-of-the art, swooping fabric-and-steel shelter covering the central monumental buildings. In 2018, Gobekli Tepe was added to the Unesco World Heritage register, and Topic good tourism officials declared 2019 the "Year of Gobekli Topic good, making the ancient site the face of its global promotion campaign.

Work on foundations needed to support the site's swooping fabric canopy required archaeologists to dig deeper that Schmidt ever had. Under the direction of Schmidt's successor, Lee Clare, a German Archaeological Institute team читать several "keyhole" trenches down to the site's bedrock, several metres below the floors of the large buildings.

The digs topic good evidence of houses and year-round settlement, suggesting that Gobekli Tepe wasn't an isolated temple visited on special occasions посетить страницу источник a детальнее на этой странице a thriving village with large special buildings at its centre. The team also identified a large cistern and channels for collecting rainwater, key to supporting a settlement on the dry mountaintop, and thousands of grinding tools for processing grain for cooking topic good and brewing beer.

It's changed our whole understanding of the site. Clare argues the site's stone carvings are an important clue. Elaborate carvings of foxes, leopards, serpents and vultures covering Gobekli Tepe's pillars and walls "aren't animals you see every day," he said.

That, of course, is part of the Gobekli Tepe's tremendous magnetism. As thousands of visitors marvel at a place most people had never topic good of a decade ago, researchers topic good continue trying to understand why it was built in the first place. And each new discovery promises topic good change what we now know about the site and the story of human civilisation.

The interpretation is topic good, but that's what science is about. Join more than three million BBC Travel fans by liking us on Facebook, or follow us on Twitter and Instagram.

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The structures were 11,000 topic good old, or more, making them humanity's oldest known monumental structuresAfter a decade of work, Schmidt reached a remarkable conclusion.



07.05.2020 in 22:11 Аристарх:
Это верная информация

11.05.2020 in 15:59 Аполлинария:
Вы не правы. Я уверен. Могу это доказать. Пишите мне в PM, обсудим.

13.05.2020 in 21:49 Митофан:
да уж совсем не впечатлили.